Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4921 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Transport Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Introduction The purpose of the project is to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of the existing car chassis, without disturbing the shape provided for engine mountings and drivers space and other constraints provided by the existing chassis model. Why is it so important to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of the chassis? In general to define chassis in this way, first a clear meaning of structure should be known. In general perspective a structure can be defined as a specific arrangement of material to resist loads. This structure should also enable to the location of the components such as engine mountings, transmission, fuel tank, suspension system etc. So it must resist loads without breaking, and without more deflection. If the chassis cannot resist loads it leads to a serious handling problems, and will not support the engine and transmission system, also the chassis should be light enough to maintain weight to power ratio and better handling in corners. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Stiffness Car Chassis" essay for you Create order 1.1 Background to project The principle loads that includes on the chassis are, by the engine, the aerodynamics, brakes, road irregularities, the inertia loads due to masses under accelerations and vibrations. Also the chassis must with stand impact loads, having absorbed part of crash energy by deformation which includes the bending, torsion, combined bending and torsion, also lateral and longitudinal loads. So the chassis structure should be strong in stiffness in design case rather than strength. The chassis and body developments should also reduce weight because it improves the vehicle ride, handling, improves the performance of car by reducing the drag because of high weight to power ratio, and also will reduce the need for power there by increases the fuel efficiency. Because of this now even mass produced passengers cars lightened up by the most detailed weight-watcher engineering techniques due to corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations of the federal government. Lighter vehicle r equires less power, hence less fuel, for equal performance. History The demand for the chassis with high torsion stiffness and low weight had increased from the World War 2. This demand had led to the innovation of many kinds such as Space frame, stressed skin etc. These types had become universal among the European road race cars following its appearance in the Lotus MK and the Mercedes-Benz 300SL in 1952. These are the cars which used strictly space frame chassis and the attention they received had popularized the idea. Major automobile industries in present era are purchasing the competitive vehicles and disassembled them carefully to study the weight and stiffness of car for comparison with the equivalent part of their own vehicle. So this lead to a competitive reasons than for increase fuel economy. Today have been included to expand the following three reasons: A means for recognising opportunities for overall weight reduction for better fuel economy. The means for determining centre of gravity (CG) location and polar moment of inertia. Detail weight estimates provides target figure of cost estimates of all parts. To resist inertial loads under accelerations, accidents etc. Structural efficiency A designer can achieve enough stiffness for a chassis from any form of construction, if enough material is used. This is not the criteria of a designer, to assess the efficiency of structure its stiffness must be considered in relation to the weight. The below shows the absolute increase in stiffness achieved in recent years is the increase in stiffness to weight ratio. Vehicle year Torsional stiffness(lb-ft/degree) Structure weight (lb) Stiffness/weight ratio Lotus 21 F1 1961 700 82.0 8.5 Lotus 24 F1 1962 1,000 72 13.9 Mc Laren F1 1966 11,000 Na Na Lotus 79F1 1979 3,000 95 31.6 Lotus 79 F1 Late 1979 5,000 85 58.8 Lotus F1 1980 10,000 75 133.33 Lola F1 1993 30,000 80 375 Table1: Demand for increase in structural efficiency. Literature Review Introduction: The loads that are experienced on a chassis are light commercial loads due to normal running conditions are considered. That is caused as the vehicle transverses uneven ground as the driver performs various manoeuvres. Basically there are five load cases to consider. Bending case. Torsion case. Combined bending and torsion case. Lateral loading. Fore and aft loading. 2.1.1. Bending case This type of loading is caused due to the weight of components distributed along the frame of the vehicle in the vertical plane which causes the bending about y-axis. The bending case depends mainly on the weight of the major components in the car and the payload. First the static condition is considered by determining the load distribution along the vehicle. The axle reaction loads are obtained by resolving the forces and by taking the moments form the weights and positions of the components. 2.1.2. Torsion case The vehicle body is subjected to the moments applied at the axels centrelines by applying both upward and downward loads are at the each axle in this case. Because of this it results in a twisting action or torsion moment about x-axis of the vehicle. The condition of pure torsion does not exist on its own because of the vertical loads always exist due to gravity. However for the calculation purpose the pure torsion is assumed. The maximum torsion moments are based on loads at the lighter loaded axle, its value can be calculated by the wheel load on the lighter loaded axle multiplied by the wheel track. The loads at the wheels are shown in the above figure. So the torsion moment is given as: RF tf = RR tr 2 2 Where tf and tr are front and rear track respectively and R f and Rr are front and rear loads. These loads are based on the static reaction loads but dynamic factors in this case are typically 1.3 for road vehicles (Pawlowski, 1964). 2.1.3. Combined bending and torsion In practice the torsion will not exist without bending as gravitational forces are always present. So the two cases must be considered when representing a real situation. Fig3: combined bending and torsion. 2.1.4. Lateral loading This type of loading is experienced by the vehicle at the corner or when it slides against a Kerb, i.e. loads along the y-axis. The lateral loads are generated while cornering at the tyre to ground contact patches which are balanced by the centrifugal force MV2 / R, M stands for vehicle mass, V vehicle velocity , R is the radius of the corner. The disaster occurs when the wheel reactions on the inside of the turn drop to zero, that means that the vehicle ready to turn over. In this case vehicle will be subjected to bending in x-y plane. The condition that applies to the roll over is shown in the below figure and it also depends up on the height of the vehicle centre of gravity and the track. At this particular condition the resultant of the centrifugal force and the weight that passes along the outside wheels contact patch. And hence lateral acceleration is V2/R=gt/2h Lateral force at the centre of gravity MV2/R = Mgt/2h. Front tyre side forces YF = Mgt b/2h(a+b). At the rear tyres YR = Mgt a/ 2h(a+b). From the lateral acceleration it is clear that it is t/2h times that of the gravitational acceleration. Kerb bumping will cause high loads and will roll over in exceptional circumstances. And also this high loads will cause in the bending in the x-y plane are not critical as the width of the vehicle will provide the sufficient bending strength and stiffness. 2.1.5. Fore and aft loading At the time of acceleration and breaking longitudinal forces will come into picture along the x-axis. Traction and braking forces at the tyre to ground contact points are reacted by mass times acceleration inertia forces as shown in below figure. The important cases such as bending, torsion, bending and torsion will come into play as these determine the satisfactory structure (Pawlowski, 1964). 18.104.22.168 Longitudinal loading At the time of vehicle accelerates or decelerates, the inertia forces are generated. The loads generated can be transferred from one axle to another by the inertia forces as the centre of gravity of the vehicle is above the road surface. While accelerating the weight is transferred from front axle to the rear axle and vice versa at the time breaking and decelerating condition. To have a clear picture of forces acting on the body a height of the centres of gravity of all structures are required. And its not so easy to determine. A simplified model considering one inertia force generated at the vehicle centre of gravity can provide useful information about the local loading at the axle positions due to breaking and traction forces. Front wheel drive, the reaction on the driving wheel is: RF = Mg(L-a) Mh(dV/dt) L Rear wheel drive, the reaction on the driving wheel is: RR = Mga + Mh(dV/dt) L In braking case the reactions on the axles are: RF = Mg(L-a) + Mh(dV/dt) L 2.1.6. Allowable stresses From the above discussed loads it is clear that it will induce stresses in all over the structure. So it is important that under the worst load conditions that the stresses induced into the structure are kept to acceptable limits. In consideration of the static loads of a limited amount should give a stress level certainly below the yield stress. If analysed the bending case for a road gong car is considered the maximum allowable stress should be limited as follows: Stress due to static load ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬âDynamic factor Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 2/3ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â yield stress. The above equation says that under any worst load condition the stress should not exceed 67% of the yield stress. Alternatively the safety factor against yield is 1.5 for the worst possible load condition. 2.1.7 Bending stiffness It is equally important to consider the bending stiffness weather to say the structure is sufficiently strong or not. So an equal and important assessment is given to the structural stiffness. Therefore many designers consider the stiffness is most important than strength. It is possible to design a structure which is sufficiently strong but yet unsatisfactory because of insufficient stiffness. Designing for acceptable stiffness is therefore often more critical than designing for sufficient strength. For vehicles the bending stress is determined by the limits of deflection of the side frame door apertures. In case of excessive deflection the doors will not shut properly. Local stiffness of floor is also important because it minimises the safety of the passenger. 2.1.8 Torsion stiffness If the stiffness is low the driver may feel that the vehicle in front will be shaking with the front wing structures moving up and down. The practical problems of doors failing to close properly will also be seen. A similar thing will be seen in the jacking points that are positioned at the corners of the vehicle. For fast moving cars the torsion stiffness is very important because it may cause serious handling problems. Therefore care should be taken in maintaining sufficient torsion stiffness. So from the all above dimensions of forces and handling of a vehicle chassis should be stiff enough and also should be less in weight. 2.1.9 Chassis types Chassis are classified into several types they are: Ladder frames. Cruciform frames. Torque tube back bone frame. Space frame. Monocoque. In the present era of automotive industry designers are using the space frame and monocoque for the justification of design problems and to sufficient structural stiffness. 22.214.171.124 Space frame A space frame chassis is a development of four tube chassis, both of them look quite similar. But the space frame differs in several key areas and offers very good advantages when compared to the predecessor. A space frame is an arrangement of many straight tubes in which the loads acting are either in tension or compression. The figure below shows the clear idea of a space frame. But from the above figure it is clear that the diagonal member is pulled in tension when a load is acted on it. This above illustration is the simple idea of the space frame chassis. This experiencing of loads in either tension or compression is a major advantage. So none of the tubes will be subjected to the load will tend to bend in the middle. Since the space frames are very good in torsion stiffness. The three dimensional space frame chassis are used for specialist cars such as sports racing cars. This type of vehicle design is used for low volume and mass production as well. In this typ e of structure it is imperative to ensure that all planes fully triangulated by doing so the beam elements are essentially loaded in tension and compression. In the space frame welded joints are done it retains bending and torsion at the joints, but to rely on this restrains will render the structure less stiff. The stiffness is provided by the diagonal member subject to direct tension or compression. 126.96.36.199 Space frame principles A space frame is three dimensional arrangements of tubes loaded in pure tension and compression. The joints between them can be replaced by the ball joints without affecting the stiffness. Other important feature is all loads enter and leave the structure at the points of intersection of three or more tubes. The structural elements do not have to be tubes and the joints do not have to be welded. In terms of torsional stiffness the space frame attempts to connect the four spring anchorages so that is impossible to twist the pair without stretching and compressing the tube. AIMS The first thing to undertake this research is to set some basic aims that need to be achieved. As the aim of the project is stated to reduce the weight and increase the stiffness of existing vehicle chassis. So the main aims are in terms of weight, stiffness, and size. 3.1. Weight Weight was a main consideration in the research it is very crucial to reduce it to that of original weight. It helps in improving the weight to power ratio, better fuel efficiency and performance. 3.2. Stiffness It is also another key factor to be considered in the research. The stiffness must be improved to that of existing one in case of torsion, bending. 3.3. Size Last but not the least, the above reduction in weight and increase in stiffness must be achieved without effecting the size and shape of the chassis. This is important because it should not affect the driver to get in the car, and appearance of the car. And also the constraints set for the positioning of the engine etc should not be changed. 3.4. Requirements Certain requirements beyond my research boundary and aims are needed to be specified, to make up and achieving success in my research they are: The elements in the space frame which should not disturb must be specified. The dimensions of the chassis, and the materials used must be specified. The specification of the loads on the chassis. The original weight of the chassis which is going to be modified. The stiffness that chassis must be in terms of torsion, bending. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are: To analyse the original chassis, its structure, weight, stiffness, torsion, and materials used. Research the characteristics of space frame chassis and discover the effects with respect to vehicle handling and performance in case of bending and torsion loads. The benefits and performance of materials when replaced by the original one in terms of weight and stiffness. The research should be done with resources available. From testing and changing the elements, dimensions other than the constraints in lab, modifying the improvements in chassis. Analysing the results to that of the original chassis and comparing. Research Questions What are the materials used for the chassis construction? What are positions in the chassis which should not be disturbed? What is maximum allowable weight, stiffness and loads that being subjected by the chassis? What will be effect on stiffness and weight if certain elements of the chassis were replaced by the other materials? If the diameter and size of the elements were changed what will be the effect on weight and stiffness? If the positions of the elements other than the elements which should not be disturbed, i.e. by mix and matching, replacing the positions. What will be the effect on stiffness and weight? If the circular tube cross-sectional elements of the chassis in some areas are replaced by square tube cross-sectional elements, what will be the effect on stiffness and weight? Research Approach and Design 6.1. Introduction The problem being researched is quantitative rather than qualitative. It deals in numerical values and variables, predetermined categories, focuses on specific knowledge and control of variables. The approach of this research is different to that of qualitative research which would involve human subjects, questionnaires and interviews. The approach will be analytical which will include experimental analysis, analysing the data, interpreting the results, comparisons etc. 6.2. Approach and design The research is about how to increase the stiffness and reduce the weight of existing vehicle chassis. The research is based on a lot of literature, experimental design and analysis. It should be well designed, planned and managed to ensure that the results can be analysed, interpreted and presented. Throughout the period of the research a process was followed to produce a successful report on the analysis done with that of the original chassis they are: Setting some benchmarks in regarding to the design of chassis. Analyse the previous chassis, and getting an idea in terms of stiffness, weight, shape. Developing the modelling, and analysing techniques that allows the process to be simple and can be modified easily. Gaining the information regarding the dimensions of the chassis from the designers and the areas in the chassis which should not be disturbed in terms of design. Looking for the possibility of the new considerations that were not previously included in the design. Considering the feedback of the supervisor as the process of the research goes on. 6.3. Experiment design It includes a statement of problem to be solved. Before going to do the research on the experimental design it is important to consider all points of view of what the experiment is intended to do. 6.3.1 Response variable The problem must include reference to at least on characteristic of a unit on which information is to be obtained. Those characteristics are called response or dependent variables. In this research the response variables are weight and stiffness, which are dependent on material, design, etc. In addition to reference of the response variable, some questions should be asked. They are measurements methods, what tools are required to measure the variable? Can variable can be measured accurately or not? 6.3.2 Independent variables The variables which control the response variables are called Independent variables. In this piece of work the independent variables are: Load on the space frame chassis. Material used for the chassis. Design of the chassis. Size and shape. The independent variables will be chosen randomly one at a time or by considering more than one independent variable. The response on the dependent are analysed and compared to that of original chassis. 6.3.3. Design Before the data is collected and results are drawn, it is important to know how to solve the problem with a limited amount of time and available resources. It is important to note how many observations should be taken, what is the maximum amount of deviation in terms of stiffness and weight in comparable to original one. Also attention is required in handling the independent variables. 6.3.4. Analysis comparison The final step in the experiment is to compare the results of the optimised chassis to that of the results on the original one, and approach the problem by checking and comparing the results. This will be done by the preparation of the graphical displays of the values in terms of weight and stiffness. Its important to make sure that the results are within the prescribed limits. If its not, follow the investigation again by controlling the independent variables. 6.4. FSAE chassis Rules and Requirements. There are some rules that must be followed throughout the design and construction of chassis. If these rules are not followed strictly the FSAE car will be eliminated from the competition. The rules that have to be followed are. Structural requirements. Minimum material requirements. Alternative tubing and material. Steel tubing requirements. Aluminium tubing requirements. Composite material requirements. Roll hoops requirements. Tube frames. 6.4.1 Structural requirements. The structure of the vehicle must include two roll hoops, front bulk head with support system and impact Attenuator, and side impact structures. 6.4.2 Minimum material requirements. 188.8.131.52 Baseline Steel Material. The structure of the car must be constructed with: Round, mild or alloy, steel tubing (minimum 0.1% carbon) of the minimum dimensions according to the following table. Item or Application Outside diameter ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â Wall thickness Main and Front hoops, Shoulder harness mounting bar. inch (25.4 mm) x 0.095 inch (2.4 mm) 25.0 mm x 2.50 mm metric Side Impact Structure, Front Bulkhead Roll Hoop Bracing, Drivers Restraint Harness attachment. inch (25.4mm) ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â 0.0065 inch (1.65mm) or 25.0mm ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â 1.75mm metric or 25.4mm ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â1.60mm metric. Front bulk head support. 1.0 inch (25.4mm) ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â 0.049 inch (1.25 mm) Or 25.0 mm ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â1.5 mm metric or 26.0mm ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬â 1.2 mm metric. Table 6.4.2: Minimum material requirements. (Source: FAE rules 2008) 184.108.40.206 Alternative Tubing and Material The chassis can be constructed with alternative tubing and material but not for the Main Roll Hoop and Main Roll Hoop Bracing. These must be constructed only with the Steel, to say in other words the use of Composites and other materials such as Aluminium or alloys are strictly prohibited. If the chassis was to constructed with alternate tubing rather than material, the tubing must not be thinner than as shown below. 220.127.116.11.1: Minimum wall thickness for steel tubing requirements Material and Application: Minimum wall thickness: Steel tubing for front and Main Roll Hoops 2.0 mm (0.079 inch) Steel tubing for Roll hoop Bracing, Front bulk head drivers harness attachment. 1.6 mm (0.063 inch) Steel tubing for side impact structure front bulk head support. 1.2 mm (0.047 inch) Table 18.104.22.168.1: Minimum wall thickness for steel tubing requirements Source: FSAE 2008 rules. 22.214.171.124: Aluminium tubing requirements Minimum wall thickness: Material Application : Minimum wall thickness: Aluminium tubing 3.0 mm (0.118 inch) Table 126.96.36.199: Aluminium tubing requirements. (Source: FSAE 2008 rules). 6.4.3. Roll Hoops The Roll hoop design criteria must justify the following: 188.8.131.52. Main Hoop The drivers head and hands must not contact the ground in any rollover attitude. The frame must include both Main Hoop and Front Hoops The Main Hoop must be constructed of single uncut tubing made of steel as per the minimum tubing requirements. The use alternate material is prohibited for construction of main hoop. The main hoop must extend from the lowest member on one side of the frame, to the down towards the lowest Frame member on the other side of the frame. In the side of the car the portion of the attachment of the Main Roll Hoop which lies above the attachment point of the main structure of the frame must be within 10 degrees to the vertical. The vertical members of the Main Hoop must be at least 380mm apart at the location where the Main Hoop is attached to the Major Structure of the Frame. In the Front view of the vehicle. 184.108.40.206. Front Hoop The Front Hoop must be constructed of closed structure of steel as minimum tubing requirements. The use composite materials are prohibited. The Front Hoop Frame member must extend from one side of the Frame, to the down over and towards the lowest Frame member on the other side of the Frame. The top most surface of the Front Hoop should not be below the top of the steering wheel in any angular position. The front Hoop should be no more than 250 mm forward of the steering wheel when measured horizontally through the vehicle centre line. No part of the Front Hoop should be inclined at not more than 20 degrees in the side view. 220.127.116.11. Main Hoop General Requirements A straight line drawn from the top of the main hoop to the top of the front hoop must be clear by 50.8 mm of the helmet of the teams drivers and the helmet of a 95th percentile male. When seated normally and restrained by the Drivers Restraint system. 95th Percentile Male Template Dimensions A two dimensional template used to represent the 95th percentile male is made to the following dimensions: A circle of diameter 200 mm (7.87 inch) will represent the hips and buttocks. A circle of diameter 200 mm (7.87 inch) will represent the shoulder/cervical region. A circle of diameter 300 mm (11.81 inch) will represent the head (with helmet). A straight line measuring 490 mm (19.29 inch) will connect the centres of the two 200 mm circles. A straight line measuring 280 mm (11.02 inch) will connect the centres of the upper 200 mm circle and the 300 mm head circle. The 95th percentile male template will be positioned as follows: the seat will be Source: FSAE rules 2008. 6.4.4. Front Impact Structure The drivers feet are always with in the Major structure of the Frame. No part of the drivers feet should be above or outside the Frame in the side and front views, while touching the pedals. Forward of the Front bulk head must be energy- absorbing Attenuator. 18.104.22.168. Bulk Head The requirements of the Bulk head in a Front impact structure are: It should be constructed of closed section tubing. It should be located in front of all non-crushable objects. It should be positioned in such way that the soles of the driver when they touch the pedals must be rearward of the bulkhead plane. Monocoque construction must approve a Structural Equivalency Form. 6.4.5. Side Impact Structure The Side Impact structure must satisfy the following: 22.214.171.124. Tube Frames The Side impact structure must be contained with at least three tubular members located on the each side of the driver when seated in the normal driving position. The required three tubular members must be within the material specification. The location for the three required tubular members are: The top structural member of the side impact must connect the Main Hoop and the Front Hoop at the height in between 300 mm and 350 mm above the ground including the 77kg driver seated in the normal driving position. The impact structural member on the lower side must connect to the bottom of the Main Hoop and the bottom of the Front Hoop. The diagonal side impact structural member must connect the upper and lower sides of the impact structural members forward of the main Hoop and rearward of the Front Hoop. Planning the time scales of project. Organising, and fixing the time schedules. Setting aims and objectives. Research questions. 7.2. Literature review Need for reducing the weight and increase the stiffness of chassis. Loads that act on chassis in various cases. Looking at Space frame chassis clearly, and understanding it. Looking at any previous work done similar to this. Any bench marks regarding the weight and stiffness i.e. minimum weight and rigidity that a chassis should be. Also the positions of elements in regarding to the drivers safety, suspension, steering, engine mountings etc. Materials that were used to build the chassis. Diameter of tubes and permissible wall thickness in a chassis should be. Can the outer diameter of the tube be increased and wall thickness be decreased or vice versa. Any option given for change the material of tubes, for example can a mild steel element be replaced with Aluminium or Composites? If the materials were changed does it meet the requirements in weight, stiffness and cost, manufacturability? 7.3. Analysis and interpretation of results Importing the image files of CAD drawings of the original chassis into the FEA software. Analysing the original chassis in weight, stiffness, materials used, outer diameter, wall thickness. Designing the experiments. Changing the wall thickness, outer diameter, positioning of elements by using the FEA software tool. Looking for any areas were design can be changed. Looking at areas where maximum elements can be replaced with minimum elements. Getting the results after running the solver and then comparing it with results to that of original chassis. If the results were satisfied in terms of weight and stiffness, problem was solved. If not the experiment was repeated again and analysed. Project Risk Assessment, Healthy and Safety In this Project the use of resources are: LRC, and journal data bases for literature searching. FEA laboratory for interpretation of results and analysis. The benchmarks are provided by the makers of original chassis. Also the chassis provided is just the CAD drawing but not structure is given in physical way. So analysis will be took place in the LAB which includes change in material, diameters, wall thickness, position of elements etc all will done by use of FEA software tool. But not done manually with machining, welding etc while changing the parameters of elements. So the project risk assessment, health safety are very minimum. And the project will not include for health safety and risk assessment. Ethical Issues The Research which is being done is Quantitative rather than Qualitative. It concentrates on measuring the variables and interpretation results and analysing, and comparing. So it is clear that it does not contain involvement of investigating subjective data and also the perceptions of involvement of people. References Race car chassis : design and construction / Forbes Aird. Publisher: Motorbooks International, 1997. Practical research: planning and design. Edition: 8th ed., International ed. / Paul D. Leedy, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Publisher: Merrill Prentice Hall, c2005. Design and analysis of experiments / Douglas C. Montgomery. Edition: 2nd ed. Publisher: Wiley, c1984. An introduction to modern vehicle design / edited by Julian Happian-Smith. Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001 The modern Formula 1 race car: from drawing board to racetrack / Nigel Macknight. Publisher: Motorbooks International, 1993. Formula 1 technology / Peter Wright; illustrations by Tony Matthews Publisher: Society of Automotive Engineers, c2001. The science of Formula 1 design: expert analysis of the anatomy of the modern Grand Prix car / David Tremayne. Haynes, 2004.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The University of Maryland, Baltimore County is a public university with an acceptance rate of 58%. Located just 15 minutes from Baltimores Inner Harbor and 30 minutes from Washington, D.C., the university offers undergraduates 48 majors and 38 minors. For excellence in the liberal arts and sciences, UMBC was awarded a chapter of the prestigiousÃ Phi Beta KappaÃ Honor Society.Ã The universitys many strengths earned it a spot among theÃ top Maryland colleges and universities. In athletics, the UMBC Retrievers compete in the NCAA Division I America East Conference. Ã¯ » ¿Considering applying to UMBC? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, the University of Maryland, Baltimore County had an acceptance rate of 58%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 58 were admitted, making UMBCs admissions competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 11,720 Percent Admitted 58% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 26% SAT Scores and Requirements The University of Maryland, Baltimore County requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 91% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 600 670 Math 590 690 ERW-Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of UMBCs admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to University of Maryland, Baltimore County scored between 600 and 670, while 25% scored below 600 and 25% scored above 670. On the math section, 50% of admitted student scored between 590 and 690, while 25% scored below 590 and 25% scored above 690. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1360 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at UMBC. Requirements University of Maryland, Baltimore County does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests. Note that UMBC participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements The University of Maryland, Baltimore County requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 20% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 23 30 Math 23 28 Composite 24 29 This admissions data tells us that most of UMBCs admitted students fall within the top 26% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County received a composite ACT score between 24 and 29, while 25% scored above 29 and 25% scored below 24. Requirements UMBC does not require the ACT writing section. Unlike many universities, the University of Maryland, Baltimore County superscores ACT results; your highest subscores from multiple ACT sittings will be considered. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA for admitted UMBC students was 3.86. This data suggests that most successful applicants to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County have primarily B/B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph University of Maryland, Baltimore County Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances The University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which accepts just over half of applicants, has a somewhat competitive admissions process. Most successful applicants have grades and test scores that are above average. However, UMBC has aÃ holistic admissionsÃ process involving other factors beyond your grades and test scores. A strongÃ application essayÃ and glowingÃ letters of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation inÃ meaningful extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. You can see a pretty clear division at an SAT score of about 1150 (ERWM) and an ACT score of 23. Most students above theseÃ scores got in, and most below it did not. Youll also notice that the majority of successful applicants had high school averages of B or higher. Higher test scores and grades obviously improve your chances of getting an acceptance letter, and almost no students with A averages and above average SAT scores were rejected. All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and University of Maryland, Baltimore Countys Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(99) " was reported to holding felt nauseous and uncomfortable in his thorax after devouring his dinner\." This assignment Ã¢â¬Ës purpose is, to give the reader a really precise apprehension of the medical journey, a male platinum aged 55 old ages of age named Matthew will travel through, after holding suffered a bosom onslaught ( acute myocardial infarction ) . That was diagnosed in infirmary five hours post patient Ã¢â¬Ës initial symptoms while exigency intervention was being implemented. Information both via household and from medical professionals in respects to the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës life style and the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës consequences to allow medical appraisals, usher and find the way the platinum will medically venture down, towards recovery. We will write a custom essay sample on Having Suffered A Heart Attack Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Much of the information gathered about the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës history will be subjective informations ; this significance information peculiar to our peculiar person that may or may non hold a bearing due to the exactitude, preciseness and proved current cogency ; the information is from the topic or topics household. Still the information must be considered. There will besides be information known as nonsubjective informations, intending information that is besides specific to the patient, but more precise, factual, mensurable, not opinionated and demonstrable from professionals in the medical field. The subject of pathophysiology will be explored in several facets associating to the platinum and giving ground to the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës physical status and recent marks and symptoms. Management of the patient and his status, by single wellness attention professional Ã¢â¬Ës and as collaborative squads and or squad in a holistic mode will be outlined and discussed. Finally of class the pharmacological sector of the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës intervention will be delved into, to bespeak the rule characteristics and maps and possible side effects of medicines he was and may be prescribed. The subject of this assignment is highly of import and really relevant due to the current medical tendencies we have in Australia sing coronary arteria disease ( CAD ) , which is incorporated within cardio vascular disease ( CVD ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) A is the taking cause of decease in Australia, accounting for 34 % of all deceases in Australia inA 2006. Cardiovascular disease kills one Australian about every 10 proceedingss. Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ ( Heart Foundation of Australia 30/05/09 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" It is estimated that about 4 % of the population over 45 old ages have chronic HF [ Heart Failure ] . Cardiovascular disease is one of the chief causes of decease in both Australia and New Zealand, the incidence dramatically increases with progressing age and, as the aged popul ation additions, HF incidence and prevalence will increase. HF histories for about 2 % of all deceases and is the 3rd largest cause of cardiovascular-related decease. The life-time hazard of developing HF has been estimated at around 20 % for Western states. The addition in prevalence of HF in Australia and New Zealand has been attributed to the ripening of the population, improved endurance from bosom onslaught, and the increased prevalence of diabetes and fleshiness in the population and the wider usage of sensitive diagnostic engineering. Ã¢â¬ ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009 pg 883 ) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY In the bulk of bosom failure state of affairss, the left ventricle non working as it should, Cardio Vascular Disease ( CVD ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Three of the more common causes of reduced LV contractility include coronary arteria disease, aortal stricture and systemic high blood pressure Ã¢â¬ ( Phipps Sands A ; Marek 6th ed.1999 pg 700 ) . Ã¢â¬Å" Systolic failure, the most common cause of HF, consequences from an inability of the bosom to pump blood. It is a defect in the ability of the ventricles to contract ( pump ) . The left ventricle ( LV ) loses it Ã¢â¬Ës ability to bring forth adequate force per unit area to chuck out blood frontward through the hard-hitting aorta. Ã¢â¬ ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009 pg 884 ) Coronary arteria disease lowers the Black Marias ability to contract through being the cause of less oxygenated blood being delivered to the chondriosome of the sarcostyles. In aortal stricture, where there is noticeable narrowing of the aortal lms the left ventricle dema nds to pump harder to acquire the needed volume of blood through the now limited valve. With systemic high blood pressure, where the overall blood force per unit area is already higher than norm, the left ventricle must supply more force per unit area than this overall blood force per unit area to win in pumping out its volume or at least a valid per centum. What finally happens when the left ventricle can non pump out the needed sum of blood ; is blood staying in the left ventricle causes extra blood to stay in the left atrium besides. The effect of excess blood is blood endorsing up into the pneumonic circulation. All this extra blood increases the force per unit area in the pneumonic capillaries coercing blood into the interstitium so the air sac compromising gaseous exchange. High pneumonic force per unit areas negatively effects the blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs, ensuing in less blood being oxygenated aÃâ Ã ¦ a barbarous rhythm of deoxygenated blood easy h ungering the organic structure of O and taking to an Acute Myocardial Infarction ( AMI ) . The authoritative marks and symptoms that was noticeable with the patient. Was being short of breath and being visible radiation headed after a really small sum of physical activity, which usually the platinum could accomplish without any emphasis. This represents a deficiency of O being circulated finally doing a rise in respiratory rate and visible radiation headedness due to low sums of O to the encephalon. Ã¢â¬Å" Dyspnea, an unnatural uncomfortable consciousness of external respiration, occurs when high pulmonary force per unit areas force fluid out of the pneumonic capillaries into the air sac. The fluid in the air sac interferes with effectual gas exchange. Ã¢â¬ ( Phipps Sands A ; Marek 6th ed.1999 pg 702 ) Ã¢â¬Å" Dyspnoea ( shortness of breath ) is a common manifestation of chronic HF. It is caused by increased pneumonic force per unit areas secondary to interstitial and alveolar hydrops. Dyspnoea can happen with mild effort or at remainder Ã¢â¬ . ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009 pg 887 ) It makes sense that Matthew our patient was reported to holding felt nauseous and uncomfortable in his thorax after devouring his dinner. You read "Having Suffered A Heart Attack Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" His digestive system would be necessitating oxygenated blood to map and his bosom evidently was non able to provide that. Hence feeling nauseated, due to the lessening in cardiac end product ( CO ) impairing perfusion to critical variety meats such as his tummy and bowels. Pain and or disfunction would be noticeable when the peculiar organ Ã¢â¬Ës demands for more oxygenated blood additions. ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009. pg 887 ) An hr subsequently Mathew Ã¢â¬Ës symptoms worsen, increasing in badness. His thorax strivings are much worse and are besides radiating down his left arm. Ã¢â¬Å" Heart Failure can precipitate chest hurting because of reduced coronary perfusion from decreased CO and increased myocardial work. Anginal -type hurting may attach to HF. Ã¢â¬ ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009. pg 888 ) During the execution of exigency interventions, Matthew was diagnosed as holding had an acute myocardial infarction AMI. Information was so gathered both via Matthew his household and via physical medical scrutiny.The information gathered by word of oral cavity through inquiries in interview from Matthew and his household are classified as subjective, of import but ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t be proven without a shadow of a uncertainty. The information collected via the physical scrutiny is current and can be proven hence classified as aim. Either manner all the information can be categorised as modifiable ( M ) or non modifiable ( NM ) ; mutable or non mutable. The undermentioned appraisal findings are recorded and will now be identified as M or NM. These findings will play a function making the beginnings of a valid attention program. Data is as follows, Ã¢â¬ËA history of coronary arteria disease, specifically high blood pressure Ã¢â¬Ë This is really of import due to his past being now revisited may give us an thought as to what may hold happened and or a prevue of things yet to come. Data classified as NM because it ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t be changed, you ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t alter your yesteryear. Ã¢â¬ËStates he late stopped taking his antihypertensives as he Ã¢â¬Ëfelt better Ã¢â¬ . This information decidedly has a bearing because non taking this medicine would raise Matthews blood force per unit area and increase his high blood pressure which in bend additions his Black Marias work load and perchance puting his bosom up to neglect ensuing in AMI. Data classified as M because it can be changed, Matthew could take his medicine. Ã¢â¬ËMother besides has high blood pressure Ã¢â¬Ë . Proposing this status being inherited and the particulars of the high blood pressure may be similar, casting visible radiation on what is being dealt with by Matthew, perchance salvaging much valuable clip as to the way to be investigated. Data classified NM, because cistrons can non be altered. Ã¢â¬ËStates he is marginal diabetic Ã¢â¬Ë Diabetes Ã¢â¬â Peoples with diabetes have a two to eight times greater hazard of bosom failure compared to those without diabetes. Womans with the status have a greater hazard of bosom failure than work forces with diabetes. Part of the hazard comes from the disease Ã¢â¬Ës association with other bosom failure hazard factors, such as high blood force per unit area, fleshiness, and high cholesterin degrees. The disease procedure besides amendss the bosom musculus. ( Symptoms of bosom disease, n.d. ) Heart failure should, nevertheless, be suspected in anyone presenting with a history of new oncoming weariness, hydrops or shortness of breath. This is peculiarly the instance if the patient has a background of diabetes, chronicrenal damage, ischemic bosom disease, high blood pressur e. ( Brady.S, n.d. ) This tells us, if true, that diet will be of paramount importance because diet is an of import direction therapy for both HF and Diabetes. Diet instruction and weight direction are critical to the patient Ã¢â¬Ës control of chronic HF. The nurse or dietician should obtain a elaborate diet history, finding non merely what foods the patient chows and when but besides sociocultural value of nutrient. ( Brown A ; Edwards 2ed. 2009. pg 894 ) Data classified as NM if Matthew is truly without uncertainty diabetic, that ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t be changed but can be adapted to. Ã¢â¬ËOverweight but late lost 5kg Ã¢â¬Ë . Because it is, late lost 5 kilogram, it could be as a consequence of him being ailing, but from here onwards his diet will be an indispensable portion of his overall attention program. The diet will hold to be specifically tailored to decrease his fleshiness, and will besides hold to suit his diabetic demands it will likely hold to be low Na low fat and be ale rt of sugars, to assist him in respects to his HF position. Data classified as M, can and must alter. Ã¢â¬ËRarely exercises Ã¢â¬Ë detrimental in respects to HF and how he got to where he now is, but his physical activity will hold to be minimised until he is in a healthier place, to so get down remodelling his life style with exercising, ( monitored of class ) , to better his wellness and understate the opportunities of HF re-occurring. Data M aÃâ Ã ¦very mutable, from inactive to active bit by bit. Ã¢â¬ËHas smoked 15-20 cigarettes/day for the past 18 old ages Ã¢â¬Ë . This would hold had an inauspicious affect on both Matthews Ã¢â¬Ës pneumonic system and cardiovascular system ; smoking deprives the organic structure of O because blood will transport C monoxide in penchant to oxygen plus smoking destroys many of the air sac that absorbs the O for gaseous exchange therefore the lungs are absorbing less O overall for the organic structure, therefore holding damaging conseq uences on musculuss including the bosom. Ã¢â¬Å" Smoking surcease may non straight cut down BP, but markedly reduces overall cardiovascular hazard. The hazard of myocardial infarction is 2-6 times higher and the hazard of shot is 3 times higher in people who smoke than in non-smokers Ã¢â¬ ( HeartFoundation.2010 ) .Data M aÃâ Ã ¦Matthew can be helped to discontinue smoke this is modifiable behavior. Ã¢â¬ËHas 3 teenage kids who are doing jobs Ã¢â¬Ë This job is a stress direction job, there have been many surveies done, covering this affair and a Psychologist would be the best port of call to assist Mathew cover with this emphasis. Ã¢â¬Å" Family demands chiefly affect lovingness and supplying for kids of married employees. Number of dependent kids is an nonsubjective index of the degree of household demands ( Rothausen, 1999 ) . Ã¢â¬ ( International Journal of Stress Management 2008 ) Data M this subjective informations can be altered but more specifically can be adapted to by get bying mechanisms being applied aÃâ Ã ¦ ! Ã¢â¬ËRecently experient loss of best friend and concern spouse who died from malignant neoplastic disease Ã¢â¬Ë . Besides another emphasis get bying job needed, and would best be suited for a psychologist Ã¢â¬Ës expertness. Even though the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës nurse would likely hold more contact hours with the platinum aÃâ Ã ¦this is where wellness attention professionals can join forces, work together as a squad for the platinum Ã¢â¬Ës ultimate end, of working better and perchance being discharged. Data M the heartache can be dealt with through a assortment of possible intercessions, so this state of affairs is non inalterable, it is decidedly modifiable. Ã¢â¬Ë Oppressing substernal thorax hurting radiating down his left arm and giddiness. Pain mark: 9/10Ã¢â¬â¢.This is a text book description of what it feels like to be enduring from an Acute Myocardial Infarction as is described in many pathophysiology texts. Ã¢â¬ Å" The hurting typically is terrible and suppression, frequently described as being compressing, smothering or like, Ã¢â¬Å" person sitting on my thorax. Ã¢â¬ The hurting normally is substernal, radiating to the left arm, cervix, or jaw, although it may be experienced in other countries. Unlike that of angina, the hurting associated with AMI is more drawn-out and non relieved by remainder or nitro-glycerine, and narcotics often are required. Ã¢â¬ ( Porth.C. 2007 pg 395 ) Ã¢â¬Å" Data M this hurting is a tell narrative that an Acute Myocardial Infarction is in procedure. This hurting is frequently mistaken for dyspepsia and is treated with hydrogen carbonate, alkalizers or even pain slayers which in bend could detain seeking professional medical attending. Siting the individual up with legs lower than the bosom, even swinging the legs may give some alleviation prior to medical attending geting. By understating the Black Marias work load via decreasing venous return. Ã¢â¬ËPhys ical scrutiny Ã¢â¬Ë Objective information is as follows. Diaphoresis, abruptly of breath and sickness. Diaphoresis [ sudating ] is sometimes due to wound or unnatural cells of the bosom motivating the production of pyrogen. This causes the hypothalamus to react to a higher set point, the hypothalamus initiates heat production behaviors ( shuddering and vasoconstriction ) hence the profuse perspiration, anxiousness the feeling of pending day of reckoning, I am certain plays a function in this excessively. Ã¢â¬Å" Many non-infectious upsets, such as myocardial infarction, pneumonic emboli, and tumor Ã¢â¬Ës green goods febrility. Ã¢â¬ ( Porth.C.2007 pg 288 ) Short of breath or Dyspnea can be because of myocardial infarction oncoming because blood is endorsing up into the pneumonic system and holding an inauspicious consequence on the lungs [ alveoli ] being able to absorb O and interchanging it for C dioxide, which so makes one short of breath because O is low and even C dioxide is low so the trigger to do one breath is besides non available Dyspnea in this instance is a respiratory manifestation Ã¢â¬ due to congestion of the pneumonic circulation and is one of the major indicants of left sided bosom failure. Ã¢â¬ ( Porth.C.2007 pg 426 Nausea is a feeling of unwellness aÃâ Ã ¦that is sometimes a precursor to purging. Ã¢â¬Å" Perform complete appraisal of sickness, including frequence, continuance, badness, and precipitating factors, to be after appropriate intercessions. Ã¢â¬ ( Brown A ; Edwards. 2009. Pg1065 ) Ã¢â¬Å" Nausea often is accompanied by ANS manifestations such as watery salivation and vasoconstriction with pallour, sudating, [ perspiration ] and tachycardia. Nausea may work as an early warning signal of a diseased process. Ã¢â¬ ( Porth.C. 2007 pg 602 ) . Possibly even an acute myocardial infarction. Diaphoresis, Dyspnea and Nausea are all M, O therapy, cold compress, organic structure positioning i.e. sitting up Ã¢â¬â pillow s support- take downing limbs and giving antiemetic if ordered ; to modify these symptoms. The implicit in cause of the symptoms will depend on physician diagnosing perchance drug therapy or surgery. BP 165/100 mmHg Ã¢â¬â Pulse rate 120 beats/min Ã¢â¬â Respiratory rate 26 breaths/min. Bp is rather high this tells us that the force per unit area is high but the ground could be many, could be that the individual is by and large hypertensive, in the procedure of holding an episode of HF, or on drugs that are doing vasodialation of arterias or rushing up the bosom and many many more possible grounds, the most serious being HF. Pulse rate is besides really high this rate is such you would be anticipating the person to be running non at remainder ; the bosom would merely be working this difficult at rest if there was something incorrect, rather perchance oncoming of HF. Body non having adequate O ; musculuss, major variety meats, including encephalon being starved of O and finally the bosom being a musculus would get down experiencing the effects. Respiratory rate is elevated besides, stand foring the organic structure seeking to do up an O debt. All these symptoms can be minimised and a certain sum of comfort can be achieved, so data classified as M. Through O therapy, stockings, take downing limbs and sitting up. O2 Impregnation: 94 % on room air. Is non improbably low but oxygen therapy via rhinal prongs would decidedly be good at no higher than 4 liters per minute to acquire O2 impregnation over 95 % . So this would be considered modifiable M. Electrocardiogram: A premature ventricular contraction with ST lift in anterior thorax leads V1-V3. Signifies a left front tooth wall myocardial infarction. This could mean that the left anterior falling coronary arteria is occluded How to cite Having Suffered A Heart Attack Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Techniques For Enhance The Motivation Level. Answer: Techniques adopted by the Managers to enhance the motivation level of the employees The article is based on the techniques that are adopted by the managers, so that the efficiency of the employees can be increased. Motivation is an important element which should be taken into consideration by every organization. The thesis statement on which the main emphasis is given is based on the techniques or the methods that are adopted by the managers, so that the motivation level of the employees can be increased. The article is related with the Cerkezkoy in which the manager has to perform the activities which gives emphasis on increasing the motivation level of the employees who are working in the organization. If an organization want to survive in the market then it is very important that there results should be achieved in a positive way. Motivation technique is something which is very important element that gives direct impact on the working pattern of the employees. If the topmanagement gives proper motivation to the employees, then it can be seen that workers can effi ciently conduct their operations. Motivation is considered as a process which discloses all the capability or the ability of an individual. The individual, who is highly motivated, can easily attain the targets of the organization. It is the main duty of the topmanagement to motivate the employees who are working in the organization in proper manner (Greco, Charlier, Christopher and Brown, 2014). If the topmanagement fails to motivate the employees who are working in the organization, then it is very difficult for them to attain the target. The organization should give main focus on enhancing the level of motivation of the employees, so that the operations can be conducted in a smooth manner. To conduct the task in an efficient way, the main responsibility is of the employee. The task or the operations are performed by the employees and if employees are not efficient towards the work, then it can be a great disadvantage for the organization (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). The strength which is analyzed in the article is related with the motivation techniques that are used by the manager and by that only they can attain the goals and objectives which are prevailing in the market. The topmanagement should always assist and support the employees. If there is a team, then it is a responsibility of a manager to assist and give full support to the subordinates. If the support is given by the top management then it is seen that the organization can easily compete with the competitors that are prevailing in the market (Miner, 2015). For example: If there is an organization in which it is very difficult for the employees to attain the target, then it is seen that there is lack of motivation in the organization. The manager should take immediate actions or consider the technique which will enhance the confidence and motivation level of the employees to conduct its operations on time. If there is a lack of motivation between the employees, then the organization can never be able to attain the goals (Donagan, 2017). The weakness that is seen in the article is related with the lack of motivation between the employees who are conducting the day to day operations of the organization. Every organization needs an efficient employee to conduct the operations of the organization. If the employee is not efficient towards the work, then the main duty is of the manager to give motivation. Motivation enhances the working pattern of the employees. It is seen that there are many techniques which are there for the manager, but to implement it the manager has to analyze the situation. Motivation should be given by analyzing the working pattern of the employee. If the worker who is dedicated towards the work can also set an example for other employees who are working in the organization (Kleebbua and Siriparp, 2016). It is seen if one employee tries to give best towards the work, then other employees also feel motivated and inspired. Other employees of the organization also try to work and give best towards the work. Job satisfaction also plays a great role in enhancing the working pattern of the employee. If the employee is satisfied and happy with the job, then it is seen that he or she will be able to attain the target easily. If the employee is not satisfied with the job then it will give negative impact on the organization. So, it is very essential to motivate the employees who are working in the organization. Also the employee who conduct the same task daily get bored and need some motivation, so that the work can be performed in proper manner (Dhar, 2015). Training is also considered as an important aspect to conduct the day to day operations in a proper manner. It helps the employees to learn about new things and also helps to gain knowledge about the operations or the activities that are conducted in the organization. By giving proper training to the employees, the organization can easily enhance the profitability and productivity. The employee who is trained can conduct its operations or the activities in an effective way. It is seen that there are various organizations that use incentive as a method to motivate the employees (Ford, 2014). Monetary reward is something which everyone wants, as it helps to fulfill the requirements and needs. Incentives are not only the technique which is used by the manager to motivate the employees who are working in the organization. The technique which is used by the manager to motivate the employees is concerned with the contribution which is done by the employees of the organization. Employee con tribution is concerned with contributing the thoughts, ideas and the suggestions to the problems. It is a technique which helps the employee to know the importance and also give positive impact on the working pattern (Centerod, 2012). Employee compensation plays a great role in enhancing the level of motivation of the employees. The employee compensation is related with the rewards that are given to the employees of the organization. It is related with the direct financial payments like wages, salaries and vacations. The manager can use this technique to motivate the employee, so that their can work with full dedication towards the work. The reward is concerned with the vacation or benefit in monetary terms (Temminck, Mearns and Fruhen, 2015). In the recent scenario it is seen that the employees are concerned about the jobs which offer benefits and incentives. So to enhance the job satisfaction, the manager should focus on giving rewards to the employees of the organization. The manager should also focus on analyzing the needs and wants, so that the corrective steps can be taken according to the requirement of the employee. In this article there are various methods which are taken into consideration like sample an d population method (Colbert, Barrick and Bradley, 2014).It helps to analyze the efficiency of the worker towards the work. There are various theories also that should be implemented by the managers like Maslow theory in which the main focus is on the needs of the employees or the workers. In this theory the first needs is concerned with the physiological needs in which the basic requirement of the individual is measured, so the managers should take into consideration the basic needs to motivate the employees in proper way. Next need is concerned with the security in which the main objective of the manager should be to give stable and happy environment to the employees, so that they can easily complete their task or activities .Next need is concerned with the esteem need in which the manager should give full respect to the employees, in this the employee will feel happy and confidence to conduct its operations. The last one is concerned with the self-actualization need in which the manager should give main focus on realizing the potential to do the task or the activities in proper manner. The manager should take into consideration Maslow theory, as this theory gives full reflection of the needs which are required by the employees. The managers should identify and take into consideration that which need is satisfied and on which the focus should be given (Barrick, Thurgood, Smith and Courtright, 2015). In this article the workers are performing their activities. There are 229 workers who are conducting their task or the activity. 183 employees or the workers are engaged in the weaving industry and rests 46 are engaged in manufacturing industry. By giving support to the thesis statement, it can be easily said that the motivation gives positive impact and also enhances the efficiency of the worker to perform their task in a proper way. The manager should implement the techniques by taking into consideration different needs of an individual, and then only it can easy for the organization to attain the goals and objectives of the organization (Jehanzeb and Bashir, 2013). If the employee is efficient towards the work, then it can be seen that the organization can easily attain success and growth and also compete with the competitors that are prevailing in the market. References Barrick, M.R., Thurgood, G.R., Smith, T.A. and Courtright, S.H., 2015. Collective organizational engagement: Linking motivational antecedents, strategic implementation, and firm performance.Academy of Management Journal,58(1), pp.111-135. Centerod, 2012, Seven ideas to get the most from your people, viewed on 7th September 2017, https://www.centerod.com/2012/02/getting-most-from-people/. Colbert, A.E., Barrick, M.R. and Bradley, B.H., 2014. Personality and leadership composition in top management teams: Implications for organizational effectiveness.Personnel Psychology,67(2), pp.351-387. Dhar, R.L., 2015. Service quality and the training of employees: The mediating role organizational commitment.Tourism Management,46, pp.419-430. Donagan, A., 2017.Choice: The essential element in human action(Vol. 2). Taylor Francis Ford, J.K., 2014.Improving training effectiveness in work organizations. Psychology Press. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Greco, L.M., Charlier, S.D., Christopher, J. and Brown, K.G., 2014. Technological Advances in Employee Training and Development. Jehanzeb, K. and Bashir, N.A., 2013. Training and development program and its benefits to employee and organization: A conceptual study.European Journal of business and management,5(2). Kleebbua, C. and Siriparp, T., 2016. Effects of Education and Attitude on Essential Learning Outcomes.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,217, pp.941-949. Miner, J.B., 2015.Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. Routledge. Temminck, E., Mearns, K. and Fruhen, L., 2015. Motivating employees towards sustainable behaviour.Business Strategy and the Environment,24(6), pp.402-412.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
5 Essential Tips for a KILLER LinkedIn Summary Many of you might have heard that LinkedIn profiles are about to undergo another facelift. Rumor amongst career professionals has is that the new profile will highlight the Summary section in a new way- making it more important than ever to have a compelling Summary to offer your readers. One of the most popular services The Essay Expert offers is writing the LinkedIn Profile Summary. We love interviewing people and writing copy for them; but you can also do it yourself if you are a good writer and know the message you want to get across. If you are a do-it-yourselfer, some tips for writing a great LinkedIn Summary might come in handy! Well, youÃ¢â¬â¢re in luck. CareerCast published one of my articles that provides five tips for a KILLER LinkedIn Summary; and although I agreed not to post the entire article on my own blog, I wanted to share the link with you. Here it is! 5 Essential Tips for a KILLER LinkedIn Summary As a preview, the tips are: Never leave the Summary section blank! Use all 2,000 characters. Tell stories. Break it up (graphically). Include your contact information [NOTE: I no longer suggest doing this unless you have space to spare, since the Contact Information section has recently been made more prominent.] I will likely write a sequel to this article soon, so please take a look at the first one and stay tuned for more useful advice! For samples of The Essay ExpertÃ¢â¬â¢s LinkedIn Summary statements, see our LinkedIn Profile Samples. And if you are looking for a professional LinkedIn Profile Writing service, please visit our LinkedIn Profile Writing page to learn more about our services and rates. Do you have more ideas about how to write a KILLER LinkedIn Summary? Please share belowÃ¢â¬ ¦ you might even get quoted in my next article!
Friday, March 6, 2020
What Electronic Data Interchange Essays What Electronic Data Interchange Essay What Electronic Data Interchange Essay I will expand on what Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is (conventional and internet based) and share with you some of the benefits and downfalls of operating such a system. Some of the benefits are lower costs, improved accuracy, and decreased paper output and processing time. One main downfall is the initial cost of the implementation of the system. I will also give you an example of how a company uses this technology. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) as defined by Roger Clarke: the exchange of documents in standardized electronic form, between organizations, in an automated manner, directly from a computer application in one organization to an application in another. EDI has been around for several decades and it has been the primary method of conducting electronic business-to-business commerce. It contains the same information that would be found on paper documents used for the same function within an organization. The following are elements of EDI: * Electronic transmission medium (VAN or the Internet) is used rather than the dispatch of physical storage media such as magnetic tapes and disks. * Structured, formatted messages based on agreed standards (messages can be translated, interpreted and checked). * Fast delivery of electronic documents within hours or minutes from sender to receiver. * Communication directly between applications rather than between computers. Conventional EDI Conventional EDI uses standard formats, American National Standards Institutes (ANSIs) X12 series, which specifies standard fields for invoices, purchase orders, shipping documents, payments and various other data transactions. The EDI software pulls flat files (where links to other data have been removed) from the mainframe systems such as financial and/or order-processing and translates the data into EDI standard forms. Then companies transmit large batches of EDI forms over a third-party value-added network (VAN). VANs make the job of connecting with other trading partners, organizations that receive or send documents from each other, easier by collecting forms in an electronic mailbox. It then sorts, translates and forwards them to recipients and guarantees that they reach their destinations intact. Benefits of conventional EDI are large companies can reduce the amount of errors in relation to re-keying information and decreasing the time and clerical costs of processing paper forms by hand. EDI standards and technologies are dependable, trusted and proven. Information is sent on private lines that have very little exposure to the public and in turn are relatively secure. Also, large volumes of data are moved efficiently through batch transfer of flat files, and established VANs help ease finding trading partners and connecting to their systems. Downfalls of conventional EDI are companies have to link their back-office systems to the EDI software, and then it has to synchronize protocols with their trading partners systems. Compatibility with new applications is difficult because of the complexity of the X12 formats. As a result of the compatibility the process of transferring large batches of data are delayed, which is at odds with todays real-time world. Also, the cost of transmitting data through VANs is very costly at $25 per 1,000 characters, but today costs are getting lower. Because conventional EDI is so rigid, costly and time consuming to initiate, it is only cost-effective for very large companies. For these reasons it keeps the number of EDI participants relatively very low. EDI via the Internet The internet was once thought to be the end of EDI, but instead it has given EDI users new options. EDI via the internet is basically the same as conventional EDI with the exception of how the information is transmitted. EDI transactions can now be sent over the internet instead of sending X12 forms back and forth via VANs. Software products put transactions into encrypted envelopes and then electronically seal them so that only authorized parties with the encryption key can view the contents. The envelopes are then sent over the public internet instead of privately owned VANs. Benefits of sending the transactions over the internet instead of via VANs are it can drastically reduce transmission costs and it is much faster. Also, most companies already have internet access and therefore would not have to pay additional costs to transmit batches over the internet. This would make it easier to attract new trading partners, like mom and pop stores, that have internet connections, but do not have the revenue to invest in VANs. Downfalls of EDI via the internet are questions raised about security, like confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and denial of having sent or received transactions. Security is only a concern for some not all EDI managers. Another downfall is that the required software must be the same for trading partners at both ends. They must install the same software and coordinate their upgrade cycles. Efforts are being made to make systems compatible and create requirements for EDI over the internet standards, but this takes time and therefore companies are limited to firm EDI formats. Example of EDI Large companies like Wal-Mart Stores Inc. have an EDI-based stock-replenishment system, which sends sales data to suppliers and initiates reordering of hot-selling items. This drastically reduces retailers warehouse inventory costs. Also, this system tells the manufacturers warehouse to ship product direct to a specific retail location. Typical information in a transmission includes a ship to address, bill to address, UPC codes, and quantities. Other information can be included if agreed upon by the trading parties. This process is also practiced by fields such as medicine, transportation, construction, engineering as well as many other industries. The full potential of an EDI system can be best utilized if it is integrated with other applications such as inventory control, shipping, accounts payable and production planning. Unfortunately, suppliers are forced to use the sometimes costly EDI system in order to continue a business relationship with the larger companies. This is not always as cost-effective for suppliers as it is for the larger companies. Summary EDI saves time because it is faster at transmitting data, delivers data with the utmost accuracy, cuts down on paper usage and decreases overall time by eliminating re-keying of information. It is a more stream-lined business process for both trading parties. Benefits can be obtained in areas like administration, inventory management, distribution, and cash management. EDI has its share of problems, but its benefits far exceed them. With the internet it is becoming easier for trading partners to transmit data at a much greater reduced cost to both parties. The next few years hold great promise for EDI and the internet. Existing EDI forms can be kept by trading partners and new ways of transmitting data can be found cheaper, which will enable more new partners.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Economics Of Innovation - Essay Example The essence of innovation is commercialized change. Its commercial nature warrants special emphasis, in that innovation pertains directly and exclusively, to observable market activities and outcomes Ã¢â¬â to the scope of good and services that are offered to consumers, or to technological and organizational advances that facilitates the flow of these goods and services. Innovation is about more than ideas, it is about how the economic system transforms ideas into outcomes, outcomes that continually shapes its evolution. Considerable economic research has been devoted to establishing whether small and large firms differ with regard to the rate of innovation or their R & D activity. In the recent literature on industrial innovation, the main issue is not whether small or large firms are more innovative, but the role each plays in the innovation process. The growth in the number of small firms during the 1980s is not seen as an independent process, but is attributed to the decentral ization strategies of large firms (Albert and Patrick, 1992).The outsourcing of entrepreneurial functions by larger firms ha increased their flexibility, allowing them to react more quickly to changing market conditions. Small firms are a major source for new product and processes, but due to their limited financial resources they are often confined to the first phase of the innovation process.